Regulation of the Growth Plate
Multiple phases of chondrocyte enlargement underlie differences in skeletal proportions
Ihh and PTHrP signaling
The fountain of bone growth
Upregulated FGFR3 and Stat–p21Cip1 in chondrodysplasias
Fibroblast growth factor 18 & Wnt signaling
On the evolutionary relationship between chondrocytes and osteoblasts
Primary human chondrocytes in culture and chondrogenesis in human bone marrow stem cells
Growth rate and expression of local growth plate regulators
Catch-up growth: possible mechanisms
Cellular events and molecular markers of chondrogenesis, chondrocyte differentiation, and AC (articular cartilage) development and maintenance.
(A) Model of endochondral bone development beginning with
mesenchymal cell condensation (i);
chondrocyte differentiation and development of the cartilage template (ii);
chondrocyte maturation and hypertrophy (iii);
separation of cartilage growth regions, vascular invasion, and initiation of both cortical and trabecular bone (iv); and finally
generation of the secondary center of ossification that separates AC and GP cartilage during postnatal bone development (v).
MC, marrow cavity; 2o, secondary center of ossification. Red lines mark the vasculature, and yellow coloration marks mineralized bone. Black box outlines AC region magnified in B.
(B) Graphical representation of the distinct cellular zones in postnatal AC. IZ, intermediate zone; RZ, radial zone; TM, tide mark; ZCC, zone of calcified cartilage; SB, subchondral bone; M, marrow. Vertical lines indicate zones of gene expression.
(C) Model outlining the process of chondrogenesis and chondrocyte differentiation. Important markers at each stage of chondrocyte differentiation are listed below the stage at which the genes are expressed. Superscripts indicate the level of gene expression.
Ref.: Zuscik et al. 2008. Regulation of chondrogenesis and chondrocyte differentiation by stress. J Clin Invest. 2008;118(2):429-438. doi:10.1172/JCI34174